Writing Terms

Thesis Statement
At the end of the introduction and reiterated in first sentence of conclusion;
Guides focus of entire paper

Topic Sentence
Begins each paragraph; guides the focus of the paragraph

Clincher Statement
Ends/wraps up each paragraph; used to sum up/lead into next paragraph

Major/Minor supports

Minor supports add to major supports; Several of each in each paragraph


Transitions
Used to "switch gears" from one support to another; adds structure and organizes
paragraph so support switches are obvious; examples: although, also, in addition to, etc


Coherence/Unity
Coherence is the fluidity of writing; all points should be balanced; coherence is important
because it makes papers sound better and make more sense.


Grammar Terms

Parts of Speech
Noun - a person, place, thing, or idea; often the subject of a sentence

Verb - an action or state of being; the action of a sentence, often marks beginning of predicate

Pronoun - a word that takes the place of a noun; acts as a substitute for a noun
and often acts as the subject of a sentence

Adjective - a describing word; used to describe nouns or pronouns

Adverb - a describing word; used to describe nouns, adjectives, or other adverbs; often ends
in -ly.

Preposition - links nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other words in a sentence; begins a prepositional
phrase; you can tell if its a preposition most of the time if it makes sense in this sentence:
"The arrow went the wagon."

Conjunction - linking words; used to connect two parts of a compound sentence; used to
connect two ideas; examples: and, or, but, etc

Interjection - word added to sentence to express emotion; often looks somewhat separate from
rest of sentence; examples: oh no!, ouch!, hey!

Phrase/Clause
Both a phrase and a clause are a group of words; phrases have a subject OR a verb; clauses have subject AND a verb;
clauses can be dependent or independent, dependent clauses are fragments and do not form a real sentence, independent
clauses are sentences and form a complete thought.

Passive Voice
Passive voice as opposed to active voice; passive voice is when the subject of the sentence does not perform the action;
in passive voice the subject is being acted upon; in active voice the subject performs the action
Passive Voice Example: The lion was lured into the cage by his trainer
Active Voice Example: The trainer lured the lion into the cage.

Parallel Structure
Both sides of a sentence (separated by conjunction) has to be balanced, not in length, but in content;
a, b, and c... "a", "b", and "c" have to be the same part of speech and balanced

Literary Terms


Personification
giving things that aren't human, human characteristics

Imagery
using words and senses to describe setting

Foreshadowing
using events early on to give hints of what will happen later

Simile
making a comparison using the words "like" or "as"

Metaphor
making a comparison without using any comparing words

Allusion
referencing a commonly known work of literature, historic event, or play

Conflict
man vs man, man vs self, man vs nature, or man vs society;
conflict drives the plot of stories